Resources for professional self-development

Resources on language learners and language learning

Resources for teaching grammar

Resources for teaching listening

Resources for teaching speaking


Background Resources on Communicative Competence

The four competences were first defined, and ways of developing them in language teaching were described, in the work of Sandra Savignon, Merrill Swain, and Michael Canale.

The concept of communicative efficiency comes from the work of Jeremy Harmer.

  • Harmer, Jeremy. (1991). The practice of English language teaching. London: Longman.


Background Resources on Learner-Centered Instruction

The learner-centered approach to teaching grows out of the educational philosophy known as social constructivism, which emphasizes the active role of the learner in the learning process. Early proponents of the constructivist nature of education include Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, Jerome Bruner, Maria Montessori, and John Dewey.

Summaries of these theorists’ contributions to constructivism are available here:

For a list of major works in constructivist theory, go here:


General Language Teaching Resources

Open Educational Resources

Freely available guidelines and similar documents developed by language teaching professionals across a number of different organizations and associations.

Be Prepared: Survival Tips for New Language Teachers
(National Capital Language Resource Center, 2008)

Fundamental Principles of Effective Adult Language Education
(Center for Applied Linguistics, 2015)

Resources Available at a Cost

ACTFL Keys Series (available in print and e-book formats at

  • The Keys to the Classroom
  • The Keys to Planning for Learning
  • The Keys to Strategies for Language Instruction
  • The Keys to Assessing Language Performance